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AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

a) Detail
From 2004 to 2008, this technology reaches 145GWh . This system needs a room for hot water cylinder and place to install the panels. Panels face from Southeast to Southwest, and pitch at 300 to 600 from horizontal. There are two types of collectors:evacuated tubes and flat plate collectors . Detail of a typical system used for a house in South Glamorgan is as below :
Size
4m2
Annual Yield
Approx 2000kWh
Total Cost
£3722.72
Location
South Glamorgan
Fuel Displaced
£ Saving per year
CO2 saving per year
Gas
£50
260kg
Electricity
£85
580kg
Oil
£50
320kg
Solid
£65
530kg
 
Cost for a system is from £3000 to £5000. Maintenance costs are quite low with about 5 to 10 years warranty . This technology is available worldwide and can be used for domestic water heating, swimming pool heating and process water heating .
b) Disadvantages
Some boilers do not fit into this system. Roof structure is sturdy enough to support the panels. Shadows from things nearby can decrease panels’ efficiency .
a) Detail
According to , this system burns wood pellets, chips, or logs to provide heat directly or for water boiler. Waste wood can be used so that it reduces waste. CO2 emits due to burning wood is the same as absorbed amount during that tree grew, therefore, total CO2 is zero. This system costs from £3000 to £9000. Using wood can save about 9.6 Tonnes CO2 per year compared to coal, and save about £170 to £430 per year if electricity or solid is used. A typical system is installed in Salisbury as below:
 
 
 

Size
15kW
Annual Yield
Approx 1800kWh
Total Cost
£7,700
Location
Salisbury
This system can connect to the current heating system of a building like solar heating system. Existing houses in the UK mostly have chimneys so that this system is suitable.
b) Disadvantages
Because wood provides less power than fossil fuel, so that to provide the power in the long time, it is necessary to have a dry storage to keep wood for using, especially in the winter. Regarding house style, existing chimneys need to be lined for longer use, and new houses need to provide enough air for this system .
a) Detail
Air source heat pump uses electric to transfer outside heat as low as -150 into water or air. It costs about £5,000 to £9,000 to install a system and £790 per year to use for heating space and washing. Existing heating system can be connected to the air source heat pump. An air source heat pump does not require storage space for fuel. A typical coefficient of performance for a system is about 2.5. This technology can be used for a variety of buildings .
Fuel Displaced
£ Saving per year
CO2 saving per year
Gas
£50
No saving
Electricity
£700
5 Tonnes
Oil
£20
No saving
Solid
£460
4.6 Tonnes
b) Disadvantages
An air source heat pump uses electricity to operate so it does not contribute much to tackle climate change.
a) Detail
Heat is collected underground by loop of pipes. Loop pipes can be placed horizontally or vertically depending on each building. A typical system costs about £7,000 to £13,000, its running cost is around £650 . This system can connect to most existing heating system, and work throughout the year even in the winter. Ground heat pump can be used for many types of buildings. A system installed in Bristol as below :
Size
12kWth
Annual Yield
25,792kWh
Total Cost
£7,435
Estimated £ saved per year
£700
Estimated kgCO2 saved per year
2,770kgCO2
Location
Bristol
Fuel Displaced
£ Saving per year
CO2 saving per year
Gas
£190
No saving
Electricity
£840
6 Tonnes
Oil
£160
540kg
Solid
£600
5.6 Tonnes
b) Disadvantages
The horizontal loop requires large space, around 30-50m per kilowatt. The vertical one needs a depth of 20m per kilowatt . Furthermore, the heat pump needs high electric power to start up that can cause electric shock if connected together with other devices, so it needs a separated breaker. Its cost is higher than the air source heat pump system. 
a) Detail
Photovoltaic (PV) is a semi-conducting material which produces electricity from sunlight. Current PV technology emits 58gCO2eq/kWh. In the coming time, the newer PV including thin-film technology is expected to reduce emission to 35gCO2eq/kWh . PV can work even in cloudy day, the stronger sunlight, the more electricity. PV cells, which have many colours and shapes, can be fixed on roofs or wall. Electricity from PV can connect to many systems like ground heat pump and solar heating . PV cells should face South or West. A typical system installed in Hants is tabulated as below:
Size
4.3kWp (26m2)
Annual Yield
Approx 3250kWh
Total Cost
£22,694
Estimated £ saved per year
£357.5
Estimated kgCO2 saved per year
1398kgCO2
Location
Aldershot,Hants
Price of a PV system changes a lot depending on PV size and type. An average system is about £8,000 to £14,000. Besides, maintenance fee is small .
b) Disadvantages
PV cells reduce performance due to shading from nearby chimneys, trees, TV aerials and vent pipes. PV cells should not face North.
a) Detail
Electricity is generated when a turbine or a generator is rotated by water current from storage or a river. Storage type needs dams to keep water, this type have a footprint of 10~30gCO2eq/kWh. Whereas, the run-of-river type generates less than 5gCO2eq/kWh . A typical 5kW system for a normal home costs about £20,000 to £25,000. Maintenance cost is low, and a hydro system often provides enough for lighting and heating .
 
b) Disadvantages
Hydro system is expensive to install. Buildings need to be near a river .
a) Detail
Electricity is generated when turbine blades are rotated by wind flow. Wind turbine is one of the lowest carbon footprints, about 4.64~5.25gCO2eq/kWh. Manufacturing and construction contribute 98% CO2 to the total emission, the rest CO2 is due to maintenance . A typical system costs about £11,000 to £19,000 that lasts over 20 years with a battery storage life of 6~10 years . A system is installed in Devon as below :
Size
6kWp
Annual Yield
Approx 10000kWh
Total Cost
£18,763.10
Estimated £ saved per year
£1,100
Estimated kgCO2 saved per year
4,300kgCO2
Location
Crediton, Devon
b) Disadvantages
Wind turbine needs professional assessment of local wind speed annually and location to build. Therefore, it can be difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Nearby buildings, trees, and other obstacles can reduce wind speed.
REFERENCES
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